Bài tập câu tường thuật lớp 8

REPORTED SPEECH

CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT

Câu tường thuật (câu gián tiếp) là câu dùng để thuật lại nội dung của lời nói trực tiếp

a. Nếu động từ của mệnh đề tường thuật dùng ở thì hiện tại thì khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta chỉ đổi ngôi; không đổi thì của động từ và trạng từ.

Ex: She says: I am a teacher.

She says that she is a teacher.

Ex: I am writing a letter now Tom says.

Tom says that he is writing a letter now.

b.Nếu động từ của mệnh đề tường thuật dùng ở thì quá khứ thì khi chuyển sang câu gián tiếp ta đổi ngôi, thì của động từ, trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn.

I. Thay đổi ngôi (Đại từ nhân xưng, Đại từ sở hữu và Tính từ sở hữu)

1. Ngôi thứ nhất: dựa vào chủ từ của mệnh đề tường thuật; thường đổi sang ngôi thứ ba

IHe / She me him / her my his / her

We They us them our their

Ex: He said: I learned English.

He said that he had learnt English.

Ex: She said to me, My mother gives me a present.

She told me that her mother gave her a present.

2. Ngôi thứ hai: (You, your)

Xét ý nghĩa của câu và đổi cho phù hợp, thường đổi dựa vào túc từ của mệnh đề tường thuật

Ex: Mary said: You are late again.

Mary said that you were late again.

Ex: I will meet you at the airport, he said to me.

He told me that he would meet me at the airport.

3. Ngôi thứ ba (He / She / Him / Her / His / They / Them / Their): giữ nguyên, không đổi

II. Thay đổi về thì trong câu:

DIRECT

INDIRECT

Simple present
V1 /Vs(es)
Simple past
V2/ V-ed
Present progressive
am/ is/ are + V-ing
Past progressive
was/ were + V-ing
Present perfect
have / has + P.P
Past perfect
had + P.P
Present perfect progressive
have / has been +V-ing
Past perfect progressive
had been + V-ing
Simple past
V2 / -ed
Past perfect
had + P.P
Past progressive
was / were + V-ing
Past perfect progressive
had been + V-ing
Simple future
will + V1
Future in the past
would + V1
Future progressive
will be + V-ing
Future progressive in the past
would be + V-ing
Modal Verb

can
May
Must
have/has to

Modal Verb in the Past

could
Might
Had to
Had to

III. Thay đổi các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn:

DIRECTINDIRECT
Now/ Here/ ThisThen/ There/ That
TheseThose
TodayThat day
YesterdayThe day before / the previous day
Last yearThe year before / the previous year

Tonight

That night
TomorrowThe followingday / the next day/ the day after
Next monthThe following month / the next month
Agobefore
The day before yesterdayTwo daybefore
The day before tomorrowTwo day after

CÁC THAY ĐỔI CỤ THỂ CHO TỪNG LOẠI CÂU TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

1. COMMANDS / REQUESTS (Câu mệnh lệnh, câu đề nghị)

Mệnh lệnh khẳng định:

Direct: S + V + O: V1 + O

Indirect: S + asked / told + O + to-inf + .

Ex:He said to her: Keep silent, please.

He told her to keep silent.

Wash your hands before having dinner, Lan. the mother said.

The mother told Lan to wash her hands before having dinner.

Mệnh lệnh phủ định:

Direct: S + V + O: Dont + V1 +

Indirect: S + asked / told + O + not + to-inf .

Ex: Dont forget to phone me this afternoon, he said.

He reminded me to phone him that afternoon.

The teacher said to the students: Dont talk in the class.

The teacher told the students not to talk in the class.

Tùy theo ngữ cảnh trong lời nói động từ tường thuật said hoặc said to có thể đổi thành told, asked, advised, persuaded, directed, begged, encouraged, remind

Ex: The doctor said to his patient: Do exercise regularly.

The doctor advised his patient to do exercise regularly.

2. STATEMENT (Câu trần thuật)

Direct: S + V + (O) : clause

Indirect: S + told / said + (O) + (that) + clause

Note: said to told

Ex: Tom said, I want to visit my friend this weekend.

Tom said (that) he wanted to visit his friend that weekend.

She said to me, I am going to Dalat next summer.

She told me (that) she was goingto Dalat the following summer.

3. QUESTIONS (Câu hỏi)

a. Yes No question

Direct: S + V + (O) : Aux. V + S + V1 + .?

Indirect: S + asked + O + if / whether + S + V + .

Ex: He asked: Have you ever been to Japan, Mary?

He asked Mary if / whether she had ever been to Japan.

Did you go out last night, Tan? I asked

I asked Tan if / whether he had gone out the night before.

b. Wh question

Direct: S + V + (O): Wh- + Aux. V + S + V1 + ?

Indirect: S + asked + O + Wh- + S + V + .

Ex: How long are you waiting for the bus? he asked me.

He asked me how long I was waiting for the bus.

4. DANH ĐỘNG TỪ (V-ING) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

Khi lời nói trực tiếp là lời đề nghị , chúc mừng, cảm ơn, xin lỗi, động từ tường thuật cùng với danh động từ (V-ing) theo sau nó thường được dùng để chuyển tải nội dung lời nói trên.

a. Reporting Verb + V-ing + .

Deny (phủ nhận), admit (thừa nhận), suggest (đề nghị), regret (nuối tiếc), appreciate (đánh giá cao, cảm kích)

Ex: Peter said: I didnt steal the painting.

Peter denied stealing the painting.

Why dont we go out for a walk? said the boy.

The boy suggested going out for a walk.

b. Reporting Verb + (Someone) + Preposition + V-ing+ .

thank someone for (cám ơn ai về .)

accuse someone of (buộc tội ai về )

congratulate someone on (chúc mừng ai về .)

warn someone against (cảnh báo ai về .)

dream of (mơ về )

object to (chống đối về .)

apologize someone for (xin lỗi ai về )

insist on (khăng khăng dòi )

complain about (phàn nàn về .)

Ex: Im happy to know that you win the game. Congratulations!, Jim said to Mary.

Jim congratulated Mary on winning the game.

Daisy said: Thank you for helping me

Daisy thanked me for helping her.

Note:

1. Why dont you / Why not / How about suggested + (someone) + V-ing

Ex: Why dont you send her some flowers? he said.

He suggested me sending her some flowers.

2. Lets suggested + V-ing

Lets not suggested + not + V-ing

Ex: Lets meet outside the cinema, he said.

He suggested meeting outside the cinema.

She said: Lets not talk about that problem again.

She suggested not talking about that problem again.

3. Shall we / Its a good idea suggested + V-ing

Ex: Its a good idea to go for a picnic this weekend, she said.

She suggested going for a picnic that weekend.

5. ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU (TO-INFINITIVE) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

Khi lời nói gián tiếp là một lời đề nghị, mệnh lệnh, ý định, lời hứa, lời yêu cầu, động từ tường thuật cùng với động từ nguyên mẫu theo sau nó thường được dùng để chuyển tải nội dung lời nói này.

a. Reporting Verb + To-inf

agree demand (đòi hỏi) guarantee (bảo đảm)

hope promise swear (thề)

threaten (đe dọa) volunteer offer (đưa ra đề nghị)

refuse consent (bằng lòng) decide

Ex: I will give you my book if you need it, said my friend.

My friend offered to give me her book if I needed it.

b. Reporting Verb + Object + To-inf

ask (bảo, yêu cầu) advise (khuyên) command (ra lệnh)

expect (mong đợi) instruct (hướng dẫn) invite (mời)
order (ra lệnh) persuade (thuyết phục) recommend (khuyên)
remind (nhắc nhở) encourage (cổ vũ) tell (bảo)
urge (thúc giục) warn (cảnh báo) want (muốn, mong muốn)

Ex: Dont forget to lock the door, I said to my sister.

I reminded my sister to lock the door.

Ann said: Come to my place whenever you are free.

Ann invited me to come to her place whenever I was free.

Note:

1. Lời đề nghị:
Would you / Could you / Will you / Can you
asked + someone + to-inf
Would you mind / Do you mind + V-ing asked + someone + to-inf

Ex: Can you read the instructions again? she said.

She asked me to read the instructions again.

He said: Would you mind opening the door, please?

He asked me to open the door.

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Các trường hợp không đổi thì

Sự thật, sự việc luôn luôn đúng:

The earth moves round the sun he said.

> He said that the earth moves round the sun.

They said: Sai Gon is busier than Hanoi

>They said Sai Gon is busier than Hanoi.

Lưu ý:
không dùng say + somebody mà dùng tell + somebody hay say something to somebody.

Câu điều kiện loại II và III:

If I were you, I would leave here he said.

> He said that if he were me, he would leave there.

Wish + past simple/ past perfect:

I wish I lived in Da Nang, he said.

> He said he wished he lived in Da Nang.

Cấu trúc its time somebody did something:

Its time he woke up, she said.

> She said it was time he woke up.

Would/ should/ ought to/ had better/ used to không chuyển:

Youd better work hard he said

> He said that I had better work hard.

Các cách chuyển đổi cơ bản

A. Say that + a statement
> agree (đồng ý), refuse (từ chối), offer (đề nghị), promise (hứa), threaten (dọa) + the infinitive

All right, Ill help you he said.

> He agreed to help me.

Oh, no, I wont come to your party, he said.

> He refused to come to my party.

Ill look for the cat for you tomorrow if you like he said.

> He offered to look after the cat for me the next day if I liked.

Ill visit your parents when I arrive there, he said

> He promised to visit my parents when he arrived there.

Ill sell the TV set if you keep on watching it all day, said the father

> The father threatened to sell the TV set if he kept on watching it all day

B. Say that + a statement
> accuse of (buộc tội), admit (thừa nhận), apologise for (xin lỗi), deny (từ chối), insist on + V-ing (khăng khăng)

You stole the jewels said the inspector

> The inspector accused her of stealing the jewels.

Ive made the wall dirty said one student.

> One student admitted making the wall dirty.

Im sorry Im late she said.

> She apologized for being late.

No, we didnt enter the garden said the boy.

> The boy denied entering my garden.

Certainly, Ill buy that car for you, said he.

> He insisted on buying me that car.

C. Say to somebody + a statement > told somebody + that + clause

Ive finished all my homework, he said to me.

> He told me that he had finished all his homework.

D. Say + a statement > said that + clause

Im going to Hanoi tomorrow, he said.

> He said that he was going to Hanoi the next day.

E. Statement with command, request, advice, invitation, offer > advise, ask, beg, encourage,
invite, order, tell, warn, remind

Youd better hurry, he said.

> He advised me to hurry.

Post the letter for me, will you?he said.

> He asked me to post the letter for him.

Make another try, please, he said.

> He encouraged me to make another try

Dont drive too fast, he said.

> He warned me not to drive too fast.

Remember to close the door, he said.

> He reminded me to close the door.

Dont forget to come at 6 a.m tomorrow, he said.

> He reminded to come at 6 a.m the next day.

F. Questions in indirect speech

Thời, đại từ, tính từ sở hữu, trạng từ chuyển như ở câu tường thuật.

Yes-no questions > asked/wanted (to know) if/whether

Are you absent from your classes today? he asked.

> He asked/wanted to know if I was absent from my classes that day.

Wh-questions > asked/wanted (to know) + question word + clause. [Câu hỏi bắt đầu who, whom, what, which,
where, when, why, how: Các từ để hỏi trên sẽ được giữ nguyên trong câu gián tiếp:]

Where do you often meet your friends? she said.

> She asked where I often met my friends.

G. Questions with shall I> 4 loại sau:

About future event (sự kiện trong tương lai)

Shall we attend the meeting tomorrow, she said.

>She asked if they would attend the meeting the next day

Request for instruction or advice (Lời hướng dẫn hoặc lời khuyên)

Shall I read it, mother? he said.

> He asked his mother if he should read it.

Offer to do something

Shall we bring you some new books? she said.

> She offered to bring me some new books.

Suggest to do something

Shall we go to the cinema tonight, he said.

> He suggested going to the cinema that night.

H. Questions with Will you, would you, could you? (yêu cầu, đề nghị, mời)> offer, invite, order,
ask, told.

Will you come to my party tomorrow? he said.

> He invited me to come to his party the next day.

Could you get ready at 6p.m tonight? he said.

> He told/asked me to get ready at 6p.m that night.

Would you like some cigarettes? he said.

> He offered me some cigarettes.

Will you shut your mouth? he said.

> He ordered me to shut my mouth.

I. Lets do> suggest + V-ing
(nếu bao gồm cả người nói thực hiện hành động)

Lets do> suggest + that Subject should do(có thể bao gồm hoặc không bao gồm người nói thực
hiện hành động)

Lets go to the cinema tonight, he said.

> He suggested going to the cinema that night. (anh ta cũng đi)

> He suggested that they should go to the cinema that night

J. Yes, lets do> agree

No, lets not do > be against the idea.

Lets eat out tonight said the mother.

Yes, lets said the son.

No, lets not said the father.

> The mother suggested eating out that night and the son agreed but the father was against the idea.

K. Must > had to

I must finish my work tomorrow, he said.

> He said that he had to finish his work the next day.

Must you go soon? she said.

> He asked if I had to go soon.

L. Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp

What + a + noun! /how + adj

> said that + clause

> gave an exclamation of delight (vui mừng, tán thưởng), disgust (kinh tởm), honor (sợ), surprise (ngạc nhiên)

How beautiful the picture is, he said.

> He said that the picture was beautiful

> He gave an exclamation of delight.

What a dirty kitchen! she said.

> She said that the kitchen was dirty.

> She gave an exclamation of disgust.

How wonderful, he said.

> He said that it was wonderful.

> He gave an exclamation of surprise.

N. Yes/no > subject + trợ động từ

Have you finished your homework?he said

Yes, she said

> He asked her if she had finished her homework and she said she had.

Are you ready for the exam? he said.

No, she said.

> He asked if she was ready for the exam and she said she wasnt.

M. Thank> subject + thanked

Would you like to have dinner with me tonight?, he said. thank you, Id love to she said.

> He invited her to have dinner with him that night. She thanked him and said she would love to.

Good luck, he said > he wished me luck.

Congratulation!, he said > he congratulated me.

Bài tập: Chuyển những câu sau sang gián tiếp.

1. Shall I help you with the exercises? he said.

2. Shall we give him a birthday cake? he said.

3. Could I leave early on Friday? he said.

4. Where shall we meet tonight? she said.

5. Will you have a drink? he said.

6. How far is it from here to college? he said.

7. Do you often have breakfast at 6.30 a.m? he said

8. Dont swim too far, boys she said.

9. Do come in and have a drink he said.

10. Remember to wake me up she said.

11. If I were you, I would learn English, she said.

12. Why dont we go camping this Sunday? he said.

13. Would you like to come to my birthday party next Sunday? she said.

14. Lets have a talk on the new film, he said.

15. Shall I do the cleaning up for you? he said.

16. What a clever boy! she said.

17. How ugly! he said.

18. Did you prepare your meal? he said. No I said.

19. Happy birthday, he said.

20. Take your seat, he said. thank, I said.

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